Evans - The historical Jesus

Craig A. Evans – The historical Jesus. Critical Concepts in Religious Studies
The Historical Jesus constitutes a selection of seminal essays in Routledge's Critical Concepts in Religious Studies series. Ten topics are covered in four volumes. These topics are judged to be representative of the essential components that make up this interesting field of research, a field that opened up more than two centuries ago. This field of inquiry is often called the "quest of (or for) the historical Jesus," implying that the goal of research is to discover the Jesus of history, the Jesus who really lived- what he said, did, accomplished, and what he was really like. This quest got under way during the so-called period of Enlightenment, itself a child of the Reformation, when longstanding cultural, institutional, and intellectual givens were subjected to critical evaluation. This critical review included ecclesiastical dogmas and the principal source of Christian teaching itself - the Bible. No longer could it be assumed that the Jesus of the New Testament Gospels was the Jesus of history.
 
The designation of "quest" came about from the English translation of Albert Schweitzer's Von Reimarus zu Wrede ("From Reimarus to Wrede"): The Quest of the Historical Jesus (see below, pp. 99-120). The designation gained even greater currency when James Robinson's assessment of the 1950s' debate among Rudolf Bultmann's students was published under the title A New Quest of the Historical Jesus. Since then scholars have spoken of an "old quest" and a "new quest." Today scholars speak of "life of Jesus research," or simply "Jesus research"- not a "quest" (though the current work is sometimes called the "third quest"). Scholars are reluctant to refer to their work as a "quest" in part to avoid association with the older quests, which were for the most part guided by heavy-handed apologetics and theological agendas (often emanating from Germany). In essence, most of the contributors to the older quests were in search of a Jesus relevant to their faith, to their church, to society, or whatever. Trying to find a Jesus compatible with one's world view seems often to have been the driving force. It has been remarked that most of the work of the older quests was not historical at all, that it was not the historical Jesus that was being sought, but the relevant
Jesus.
 

Craig A. Evans – The historical Jesus. Critical Concepts in Religious Studies

Wearset Ltd, Boldon, Tyne and Wear Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall
ISBN 0-415-32750-4
 

Craig A. Evans – The historical Jesus. Critical Concepts in Religious Studies – Content

VOLUME I THE HISTORY OF THE QUEST: CLASSIC STUDIES AND CRITICAL QUESTIONS
 
PART I
Classic Studies
1 The real intention of the Aposdes
HERMANN S. REIMARUS
2 Concluding dissertation: the dogmatic import of the life of Jesus
DAVID F. STRAUSS
3 The essential nature of the work of Jesus
ERNEST RENAN
4 Against the life·of·Jesus movement
MARTIN KAHLER
5 Introduction
JAMES M. ROBINSON
6 Introduction: view-point and method and The historical background for the ministry of Jesus
RUDOLF BULTMANN
7 The problem of the historical Jesus
ERNST KASEMANN
8 The quest of the historical Jesus
ERNST FUCHS
9 The problem of the historical Jesus
JOACHIM JEREMIAS
10 The possibility of a new quest
JAMES M. ROBINSON
11 The primitive Christian kerygma and the historical Jesus
RUDOLF BULTMANN
 
PART2
Critical Questions: Miracle and Myth
12 Introduction: development of the mythical point of view in relation to the Gospel histories
DAVID F. STRAUSS
13 Non-historical theories
MAURICE GOGUEL
14 New Testament and mythology: the mythological element in the message of the New Testament and the problem of its re-interpretation
RUDOLF BULTMANN
15 Mythology and the New Testament a review of Kerygma und Mythos
AMOS N. WILDER
16 Myth and Gospel: a discussion of the problem of demythologizing the New Testament message
GONTHER BORNKAMM
 
PART3
Critical Questions: Presuppositions and Criteria of Authenticity
17 The authenticity of Jesus' sayings
FREDERICK C. GRANT
18 The quest for the historical Jesus: a discussion of methodology
WILLIAM 0. WALKER
19 Christology and methodology
M. D. HOOKER
20 An examination of the criteria for distinguishing the authentic words of Jesus
D. G. A. CALVERT
21 On using the wrong tool
M. D. HOOKER
22 Literary criteria in life of Jesus research: an evaluation and proposal
RICHARD N. LONGENECKER
 
VOLUME II THE TEACHING OF JESUS
 
PART I
Parables and Kingdom of God
23 The nature and purpose of the Gospel parables
C. H. DODO
24 Parables: their meaning and nature and The Kingdom of
Heaven
ETA LINNEMANN
25 The setting
JOACHIM JEREMIAS
26 Similitudes, parables, illustrations, allegories
W. 0. E. OESTERLEY
27 If we do not cut the parables out of their frames
BIRGER GERHARDSSON
28 Introduction and Extracts from Jesus' Proclamation of the Kingdom of God
JOHANNES WEISS
29 The imminent future of the Kingdom of God
WERNER G. K0MMEL
30 The Kingdom of God expels the Kingdom of Satan
RUDOLF OTTO
31 The Kingdom of God in the proclamation of Jesus
REGINALD H. FULLER
32 On understanding the Kingdom of God
ERICH GRASSER
33 Jesus and the language of the kingdom
NORMAN PERRIN
34 Regnum Dei Dens Est
BRUCE D. CHILTON
35 Jesus as inaugurator of the Kingdom of God
MARINUS DE JONGE
 
PART2
Ethics and Piety
36 The ethical teaching of Jesus
JOSEPH KLAUSNER
37 The original teaching of Jesus and the ethics ofthe early Church 
T. W. MANSON
38 The teacher
C. H. DODO
39 God as father in the proclamation and in the prayer of Jesus
DIETER ZELLER
40 Jesus and the quest for holiness: the alternative paradigm
MARCUS J. BORG
41 Alms, debt and divorce: Jesus' ethics in their Mediterranean context
JOHN S. KLOPPENBORG
42 Jesus and ethics
PHEME PERKINS
 
VOLUME III JESUS' MISSION, DEATH, AND RESURRECTION
 
PARTI
Mission and Self-Understanding
43 Purpose, aim and motive in Jesus
H. J. CADBURY
44 Die Frage nach dem messianischen Bewu8tsein Jesu 24
OTTO BETZ
45 How much did Jesus know? - A survey of the Biblical evidence 50
RAYMOND E. BROWN
46 The son of Man in contemporary debate
I. HOWA RD MA RSHALL
47 The sonsbip of the historical Jesus in Christology
RICHARD BA UCKHAM
48 Did Jesus know he was God?
RA YMOND E. BROWN
49 Why did Jesus have to die?
P. STUHLMACHER
50 Messianic ideas and their inftuence on the Jesus of history
J. D. G. DUNN
51 Jesus' ministry and self-understanding
BEN F. MEYER
52 Jesus' self-understanding
C. M. TUCKETT
 
PART2
The Death of Jesus 
53 The bearing of the Rabbinical criminal code on the Jewish trial narratives in the Gospels
H. DANBY
54 The trial of Christ in the Synoptic Gospels
A. N. SHERWIN-WHITE
55 The burial of Jesus (Mark 15:42--47)
RA YMOND E. BROWN
56 "Where no one had yet been laid": the shame of Jesus' burial
BYRON R. McCANE
57 "Are you the Messiah?" Is the crux of Mark 14:61-62 resolvable?
JAMES D. G. DUNN
 
PART3
The Resurrection of Jesus
58 The appearances of the risen Christ: an essay in form-criticism of the Gospels
C. H. DODD
59 Is the resurrection an 'historical' event?
GERALD O'COLLINS
60 Was the tomb really empty?
ROBERT H. STEIN
61 Resurrection: fact or illusion?
EDUARD SCHWEIZER
62 Luminous appearances of the risen Christ
GERALD O'COLLINS
63 The essential physicality of Jesus' resurrection according to the New Testament
ROBERT H. GUNDRY
64 The resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth
PHEME PERKINS
65 The resurrection of Jesus Christ
C. E. B. CRANFIELD
 
VOLUME IV LIVES OF JESUS AND JESUS OUTSIDE THE BIBLE
 
PARTI
Lives of .Jesus
66 Chapters VIII-XII from The Life of Jesus
ERNEST RENAN
67 The public life of Christ to the time of his arrest
F. E. D. SCHLEIERMACHER
68 A great day in the life of Jesus
F. W. FARRAR
69 The healing of the woman - Christ's personal appearance - the raising of Jairus' daughter 67
ALFRED EDERSHEIM
70 Jesus and the Messiahship
WILHELM BOUSSET
71 The crisis in Galilee
MAURICE GOGUEL
72 The recognition of Jesus by men
WILLIAM BARCLA Y
73 Discipleship and the Kingdom
E. W. SAUNDERS
74 The upper room
EVERETT F. HARRISON
 
PART2
Jesus Outside the Bible 
Jesus in the Agrapha and Extracanonical Gospels
75 'Unwritten' sayings and Apocryphal Gospels
F. F. BRUCE
76 Extracanonical parables and the historical Jesus
WILLIAM D. STROKER
77 Jesus in the agrapha and apocryphal gospels
JAMES H. CHARLESWORTH AND CRAIG A. EVANS
Gospel of Peter
78 The Gospel of Peter and canonical Gospel priority
RA YMOND E. BROWN
Gospel of Thomas
79 The Gospel of Thomas: a secondary Gospel
KLYNE R. SNODGRASS
Papyrus Egerton 2
80 Papyrus Egerton 2 (the Unknown Gospel) - part of the Gospel of Peter?
DAVID F. WRIGHT
Secret Gospel of Mark
81 The relation of "The Secret Gospel of Mark" to the Fourth Gospel
RAYMOND E. BROWN
Jesus in non-Christian Sources
82 Research on the historical Jesus today: Jesus and the Pseudepigrapha, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Nag Hammadi Codices, Josephus, and archaeology
JAMES H. CHARLESWORTH
83 Jesus in non-Christian sources
CRAIG A. EVANS
 

Craig A. Evans – The historical Jesus. Critical Concepts in Religious Studies – Introduction: development of the mythical point of view in relation to the gospel histories

 
Wherever a religion, resting upon written records, prolongs and extends the sphere of its dominion, accompanying its votaries through the varied and progressive stages of mental cultivation, a discrepancy between the representations of those ancient records, referred to as sacred, and the notions of more advanced periods of mental development, will inevitably sooner or later arise. In the first instance this disagreement is felt in reference only to the unessential-the external form: the expressions and delineations are seen to be inappropriate; but by degrees it manifests itself also in regard to that which is essential: the fundamental ideas and opinions in these early writings fail to be commensurate with a more advanced civilization. As long as this discrepancy is either not in itself so considerable, or else is not so universally discerned and acknowledged, as to lead to a complete renunciation of these Scriptures as of sacred authority, so long will a system of reconciliation by means of interpretation be adopted and pursued by those who have a more or less distinct consciousness of the existing incongruity.
 
A main element in all religious records is sacred history; a history of events in which the divine enters, without intermediation, into the human; the ideal thus assuming an immediate embodiment. But as the progress of mental cultivation mainly consists in the gradual recognition of a chain of causes and effects connecting natural phenomena with each other; so the mind in its development becomes ever increasingly conscious of those mediate links which are indispensable to the realization of the ideal;1 and hence the discrepancy between the modern culture and the ancient records, with regard to their historical portion, becomes so apparent, that the immediate intervention of the divine in human affairs loses its probability. Besides, as the humanity of these records is the humanity of an early period, consequently of an age comparatively undeveloped and necessarily rude, a sense of repulsion is likewise excited. The incongruity may be thus expressed. The divine cannot so have happened (not immediately, not in forms so rude); or, that which has so happened cannot have been divine:and if a reconciliation be sought by means of interpretation, it will be attempted to prove, either that the divine did not manifest itself in the manner related,-which is to deny the historical validity of the ancient Scriptures; or, that the actual occurrences were not divine-which is to explain away the absolute contents of these books. In both cases the interpretation may be partial or impartial: partial, if undertaken with a determination to close the eyes to the secretly recognized fact of the disagreement between the modern culture and the ancient records, and to see only in such interpretation the original signification of these records; impartial, if it unequivocally acknowledges and openly avows that the matters narrated in these books must be viewed in a light altogether different from that in which they were regarded by the authors themselves. This latter method, however, by no means involves the entire rejection of the religious documents; on the contrary, the essential may be firmly retained, whilst the unessential is unreservedly abandoned.
 
 
 

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