T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism - Volume 1

Daniel M. Gurtner and Loren T. Stuckenbruck - T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism - Volume 1
The period between the “Babylonian Exile,” literarily marked by an edict attributed to Cyrus the Great in 538 bce permitting a return to the land of Judah (Ezra 1:1–4) and by the immediate aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135 ce ), was pivotal. Within this frame, the period is flanked by traditions concerned with the construction and existence of a “second” Temple in Jerusalem: replacing the Solomonic Temple destroyed in 586 bce, it was erected by 516 bce (cf. Ezra 5:1–17), rebuilt in grandeur beginning with the rule of Herod  the Great , and destroyed on the ninth of Av in 70 ce (Josephus, J.W. 6.229–280).
 
Pivotal in transitional events of magnitude on either end, the Second Temple period can, within itself, be described in relation to a series of far-reaching socioreligious and political shifts that not only affected holders of power but also determined the location and changing fate of Judeans, whether they lived nearer to Jerusalem or abroad. While this much is undisputed, a recognition of the sheer diversity of the period, both on account of vicissitudes through time and the coexistence of different groups that vied to secure their identity in Judea and the diasporas, poses challenges. When considering a period of over 600 years, we may raise questions as follows: How can one possibly characterize this era as a whole without simply defaulting to records that reflect the particular interests of those who happened to be in political or cultural power or without reverting to normative perspectives that are anachronistically imposed on such a heritage?
 

Daniel M. Gurtner and Loren T. Stuckenbruck - T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism - Volume 1

BLOOMSBURY, T&T CLARK and the T&T Clark logo are trademarks of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc
First published in Great Britain 2020
ISBN: HB: 978-0-5676-5811-1
 

Daniel M. Gurtner and Loren T. Stuckenbruck - T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism - Volume 1 - Contents

Preface
Periodized Color Maps
  • Map 1: Greater Mediterranean Region
  • Map 2: Alexander the Great (ca. 334–323 bce )
  • Map 3: The Diadochi (ca. 323–301 bce )
  • Map 4: Seleucids and Ptolemies (301–200 bce )
  • Map 5: Seleucids and Ptolemies (200–167 bce )
  • Map 6: Maccabean Revolt (167–160 bce )
  • Map 7: Hasmonean Rule (I) (160–103 bce )
  • Map 8: Hasmonean Rule (II) (103–63 bce )
  • Map 9: Decline of Hasmonean Rule and Roman Presence (63–43 bce )
  • Map 10: Herod the Great and His Successors (43 bce –6 ce )
  • Map 11: Direct Roman Rule (6–66 ce )
  • Map 12: First Jewish War (66–73 ce )
  • Map 12a: First Jewish War: Initial Successes (66 ce )
  • Map 12b: First Jewish War: Roman Campaigns (67–69 ce )  
  • Map 12c: First Jewish War: Siege of Jerusalem (70 ce )
  • Map 12d: First Jewish War: Siege of Masada (73/74 ce )
  • Map 13: Roman Rule through the Second Jewish War (73–136 ce )
Abbreviations
Contributors
  • Part One What Is Second Temple Judaism? (Loren T. Stuckenbruck)
  • Part Two The Historical and Political Contexts of Second Temple Judaism (Daniel M. Gurtner)
  • Part Three Literature
Abraham, Apocalypse of Alexander Kulik
Abraham, Testament of Jared W. Ludlow
Adam and Eve, Greek Life of John R. Levison
Ahiqar Proverbs Seth A. Bledsoe
Amos, Book of W. Edward Glenny
Amram, Visions of Robert R. Duke
Aramaic Levi Document Henryk Drawnel
Aristeas, Letter of Benjamin G. Wright III
Aristobulus Robert Doran
Babatha Archive Michael Owen Wise
Bar Kokhba Letters Michael Owen Wise
Barki Nafshi (4Q434–438) Eileen Schuller
Baruch, Book of Sean A. Adams
Baruch, Second Book of Liv Ingeborg Lied
Baruch, Third Book of Alexander Kulik
Baruch, Fourth Book of Robert A. Kraft
Beatitudes (4QBeatitudes) Elisa Uusimäki
Ben Sira Benjamin G. Wright III
Berakhot (4Q286–290) Angela Kim Harkins
Catenae A–B (4Q177, 4Q182) Lidija Novakovic
Chronicles, Books of Isaac Kalimi
Copper Scroll (3Q15) Al Wolters
Damascus Document (D) Cecilia Wassén
Daniel, Additions to Tim Meadowcroft
Daniel, Book of Andrew B. Perrin
Daniel, Pseudo-Texts Amanda M. Davis Bledsoe
David Apocryphon Eva Mroczek
Demetrius the Chronographer Shayna Sheinfeld
Deuteronomy, Book of Laura Quick
Elect of God (4Q534–536) Loren T. Stuckenbruck
Enoch, Ethiopic Apocalypse of (1 Enoch) Miryam T. Brand
Book of Watchers (1 Enoch 1–36) Kelley Coblentz Bautch
Book of Parables (1 Enoch 37–71) Grant Macaskill
Astronomical Book (1 Enoch 72–82) Jonathan Ben-Dov
Dream Visions (1 Enoch 83–84) Andrew B. Perrin
Animal Apocalypse (1 Enoch 85–90) Daniel Olson
Apocalypse of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17) Ronald Herms
Epistle of Enoch (1 Enoch 92:1–5; 93:11–105:2) Mark D. Mathews
Birth of Noah (1 Enoch 106–107) Daniel A. Machiela
Eschatological Exhortation (1 Enoch 108) Mark D. Mathews
Enoch, Slavonic Apocalypse of (2 Enoch) Christfried Böttrich
Esdras, First Book of Juha Pakkala
Esdras, Second Book of (see—Ezra, Fourth Book of [pt 3]) Esther, Book of Isaac Kalimi
Esther, Greek Versions of Kristin De Troyer
Eupolemus G. Anthony Keddie
Eupolemus, Pseudo- Philip Michael Sherman
Exodus, Book of Drew Longacre
Ezekiel, Book of Andrew Mein
Ezekiel the Tragedian Pierluigi Lanfranchi
Ezra, Book of Csilla Saysell
Ezra, Fourth Book of Hindy Najman
Florilegium (4Q174) Shani Tzoref
Gabriel, Vision of Amanda M. Davis Bledsoe
Genesis, Book of Benjamin Wold
Genesis and Exodus, Commentary on (4Q422) Benjamin Wold
Genesis Apocryphon Michael Becker
Genesis Commentaries (4Q252–254, 254a) Shani Tzoref
Giants, Book of Joseph L. Angel
Greek Versions of the Hebrew Bible and Other Writings James K. Aitken
Habakkuk, Book of Alex P. Jassen
Habakkuk, Pesher of Alex P. Jassen
Haggai, Book of John Kessler
Hebrews, Epistle to the Eric F. Mason
Hekhalot Texts (see—Merkabah Mysticism and Hekhalot Texts [pt 4]) Herakleopolis Papyri  Annette Weissenrieder
Hodayot (1QH a +4QH manuscripts) Angela Kim Harkins
Hosea, Book of Russell Fuller
Hosea, Pesher of Maurya P. Horgan
Instruction (4QInstruction) Elisa Uusimäki
Isaiah, Ascension of Jonathan M. Knight
Isaiah, Book of Konrad Schmid
Isaiah, Pesher of Marilyn J. Lundberg
Isaiah Scroll (1QIsa a ) Eugene Ulrich
Jacob, Ladder of Alexander Kulik
James, Epistle of Dale C. Allison, Jr. Jannes and Jambres Ted M. Erho
Jeremiah and Lamentations Thomas Römer
Jeremiah, Apocryphon of Kipp Davis
Jeremiah, Epistle of Sean A. Adams
Jews in the Persian Court (4Q550) Philip Esler
Job, Book of Elaine T. James
Job, Qumran Aramaic Version of David J. Shepherd
Job, Testament of Maria Cioată
Joel, Book of Elie Assis
John, Gospel of John Ashton
John, Letters of George L. Parsenios
Jonah, Book of Carla Sulzbach
Jonathan the King Text (4Q448) Henry W. Morisada Rietz
Joseph and Aseneth Jill Hicks-Keeton
Joseph, Apocryphon of (4Q371–373) Matthew Thiessen
Joseph, Prayer of Simon J. Joseph
Josephus, Writings of Michael Tuval
Joshua, Apocryphon of Devorah Dimant
Joshua, Book of Ed Noort
Jubilees, Book of Jacques T. A. G. M. van Ruiten
Jude, Epistle of Duane F. Watson
Judges, Book of Ariel Feldman
Judith, Book of Deborah Levine Gera
Justus of Tiberias James E. Bowley
Kings, Books of Ariel Feldman
Latin Versions of the Hebrew Bible and Other Writings Annette Weissenrieder
Leviticus, Book of Robert Kugler
Leviticus, Qumran Aramaic Version of David J. Shepherd
Luke-Acts Kindalee Pfremmer De Long
Maccabees, First Book of Michael Tuval
Maccabees, Second Book of Daniel R. Schwartz
Maccabees, Third Book of Noah Hacham
Maccabees, Fourth Book of Tessa Rajak
Malachi, Book of Russell Fuller
Manasseh, Prayer of Archie T. Wright
Manetho Erich S. Gruen
Mark, Gospel of Suzanne Watts Henderson
Matthew, Gospel of Anders Runesson
Megillat Taʿanit (The Scroll of Fasting) Vered Noam
Melchizedek Scroll (11Q13) Eric F. Mason
Menander, Sentences of the Syriac Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr
Messianic Apocalypse (4Q521) Michael Becker
Micah, Book of Watson E. Mills and Daniel M. Gurtner
Micah, Pesher of Matthew A. Collins
Midrashim (see—Midrash [pt 4]) Miqṣat Maʿaśê ha-Torah (MMT) Mika S. Pajunen
Minor Prophets Russell Fuller
Mishnah Tal Ilan
Moses, Assumption of Kenneth Atkinson
Moses, Testament of  (see—Moses, Assumption of [pt 3]) Nabonidus, Prayer of (4Q242/4QPrNab) Årstein Justnes
Nahum, Book of Russell Fuller
Nahum, Pesher of Shani Tzoref
Naphtali, Testament of (4Q215) Michael E. Stone
Nehemiah, Book of Jacob L. Wright
New Jerusalem Text Hugo Antonissen
Numbers, Book of Thomas Römer
Obadiah, Book of Anselm C. Hagedorn
Ordinances (4QOrdinances) Hannah K. Harrington
Orpheus, Pseudo- Samantha Newington
Otot Jonathan Ben-Dov
Papyri from Qumran Cave 7 Michael Owen Wise
Paraleipomena Ieremiae (see—Baruch, Fourth Book of [pt 3]) Patriarchs, Testaments of the Twelve Vered Hillel
Pauline Letters Bruce W. Longenecker
Pentateuch Molly Zahn
Pesher of the Periods (4Q180–181) Devorah Dimant
Peshitta Jan Joosten
Peter, Letters of Chad Pierce
Philo of Alexandria Ronald R. Cox
Philo, Pseudo- (LAB) Robert Hayward
Philo the Epic Poet Sean A. Adams
Phocylides, Pseudo- Sean A. Adams
Pirqe Aboth Luke Neubert
Prophets, Lives of the Anna Maria Schwemer
Proverbs, Book of Bernd U. Schipper
Psalms 151–155 Daniel M. Gurtner
Psalms, Book of Judith Gӓrtner
Psalms, Pesher of Jutta Jokiranta
Psalms Scrolls Eva Mroczek
Qahat, Testament of Ken M. Penner
Qoheleth Douglas B. Miller
Revelation, Book of Christopher Rowland
Reworked Pentateuch (4QRP) Molly Zahn
Rule of Blessings (1QSb) Joseph L. Angel
Rule of the Community Arjen Bakker
Rule of the Congregation (1QSa) Cecilia Wassén
Ruth, Book of Max Rogland
Samaritan Pentateuch Robert T. Anderson
Samuel, Books of Ariel Feldman
Self-Glorification Hymn Angela Kim Harkins
Septuagint  (see—Greek Versions of the Hebrew Bible and Other Writings [pt 4]) Shem, Treatise of Kenneth Atkinson
Sibylline Oracles 1–2 Olaf Wassmuth
Sibylline Oracles 3 Rieuwerd Buitenwerf
Sibylline Oracles 4–5 Olivia Stewart Lester
Solomon, Odes of Majella Franzmann
Solomon, Psalms of Joseph L. Trafton
Solomon, Testament of Todd Klutz
Solomon, Wisdom of Randall D. Chesnutt
Song of Songs Anselm C. Hagedorn
Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice Noam Mizrahi
Talmud, Babylonian Jeffrey L. Rubenstein
Talmud, Jerusalem Günter Stemberger
Tanḥumim (4Q176) Jesper Høgenhaven
Targumim David Shepherd
Temple Scroll Dwight D. Swanson
Testimonia (4Q175) Henry W. Morisada Rietz
Tobit, Book of Andrew B. Perrin
Ṭohorot (4Q274, 276–277, 278) Aryeh Amihay
Torah (see—Pentateuch [pt 3]) Tosefta Michael Tilly
War, Book of (4Q285, 11Q14) Martin G. Abegg, Jr.
War Scroll Brian Schultz
Words of Michael Loren T. Stuckenbruck
Words of the Luminaries Daniel K. Falk
Zechariah, Book of Antonios Finitsis
Zephaniah, Apocalypse of Michael Sommer
Zephaniah, Book of Christof Hardmeier
 

Daniel M. Gurtner and Loren T. Stuckenbruck - T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism - Volume 1 – Preface

 
These volumes began as part of T&T Clark’s Companion series but quickly expanded into their current encyclopedic form. In total they contain 642 essays specifically written for this project. We have enlisted 407 contributors from 26 countries, representing 264 universities, colleges, and academic institutions. They are leading academics with specialist expertise. We have deliberately approached Judaism in the Second Temple period from many diverse angles—archaeology, languages, documents and texts, events, people, places, practices, movements, ideas. Since this range includes the reading of traditional scriptures and early Christian sources in relation to Second Temple Judaism, the work contains essays not only on all the books of the Hebrew Bible but also on those of the New Testament. The inclusion of “outside” sources by Greek and Latin authors on Jews and Judaism throws light on the varied relationships between Jews and non-Jews (from the latter’s perspective) in the ancient world.
 
Scope: A project of this magnitude requires some clarification regarding what exactly it is, and what it is not. The objective is to assemble in a single reference work a collection of articles on some of the most important subjects related to the breadth of “Second Temple Judaism.” Though this designation is variously construed, the editors have determined that the time between Alexander the Great on the one end and Bar Kokhba on the other offers the initial point of departure for material and subjects covered by the present work. At the same time, we recognize that what comprises the “Second Temple period” embraces earlier events and sources and that many materials transmitted after the Bar Kokhba revolt contain tradition that can be traced back to the Second Temple period in some form. The essay coverage has thus been made to reflect these interests, and we have labored to make the respective entries focus on what they have to say about Judaism—very broadly conceived and from a variety of perspectives—within this timeframe. As a reference work, the Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism is designed (a) to provide an orientation to a wide embrace of Second Temple traditions, social life, and material heritage and, in so doing, (b) to present in one accessible location the assembled expertise of linguists, historians, archaeologists, and many others to facilitate interdisciplinary work. The material and literary analyses meet here to take conversations about Second Temple Judaism, in all its diversity, forward.
 

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