Hays - Duvall - Pate - Dictionary of Biblical Prophecy and End Times

J. Daniel Hays, J. Scott Duvall, C. Marvin Pate - Dictionary of Biblical Prophecy and End Times

J. Daniel Hays, J. Scott Duvall, C. Marvin Pate - Dictionary of Biblical Prophecy and End Times

Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2007. – 508 p.
ISBN: 978-0-310-57104-9
Biblical prophecy is a relevant and important topic for the church today. Not only does biblical prophecy provide hope for the future and strength for today, but its broad-sweeping themes help us to understand the entire Bible. Indeed, prophecy ties the Bible together from Genesis to Revelation.
Unfortunately, the study of this topic is often surrounded by controversy and argument. Evangelicals and other Bible-believing Christians, who agree on many crucial aspects of theology, frequently find themselves disagreeing over the interpretation of biblical texts that deal with prophecy. Adding to the problem is the fact that some writers on this subject express their views with absolute certainty — they are convinced that their interpretation is without error and that those who disagree are simply wrong. All too often, writers and teachers on this subject abandon the virtue of academic humility and show little concern about the possible validity of the biblical arguments raised against their view or arguments in favor of a countering viewpoint.
This book was conceived with the purpose of helping lay people in the church study and understand biblical prophecy. The three authors of this Dictionary of Biblical Prophecy and End Times have no theological agenda to push or prophetic viewpoint to champion, other than a strong commitment to the Scriptures and a passion to interpret the biblical texts in accordance with the intention of the biblical writers. In fact, the three of us (J. Daniel Hays, J. Scott Duvall, and C. Marvin Pate) are not in complete agreement ourselves regarding the end times. Yet what unites us is a common commitment to sound, scholarly study of the Scriptures and a respect for differing evangelical viewpoints that nonetheless have substantial scriptural evidence. We are not only coauthors but also colleagues and friends, working together in harmony to try to strengthen the church through writing, teaching, and pastoring.
The Dictionary of Biblical Prophecy is designed primarily for lay people in the church. However, its goal is to move beyond the oversimplified and self-convinced viewpoints and discussions of some of the popular writers on this subject to provide nuanced, but understandable explanations and discussions based on the top evangelical scholarship available today. In addition, the goal for this book is to provide a solid explanation for and defense of all serious views on prophecy held by evangelicals, along with an appropriate critique pointing out each view’s weaknesses as well.
Following the tradition of most modern English Bible translations, when referring to the Old Testament Hebrew covenant name of God (Yahweh), the English term Lord (in caps) is used. Occasionally Yahweh is used, usually with a brief explanation of the term.
We wish to thank Ouachita Baptist University students Garrett Ham and Eric Michalls, who contributed to this book through proofreading and checking the many biblical citations.
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Haggai, Book of
The three prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi are called the Postexilic Prophets because they ministered after the exile of the Jews to Babylon is officially over. In 538 B.C. the Persian king Cyrus decrees that the Jews can return from exile in Babylon to their homeland.
The prophecies of Haggai date to the year 520 B.C. A critical component in rebuilding the nation of Israel is the construction of the temple. In Haggai 1:4 the prophet rebukes the people because they are living in fine homes while the Temple of God still lies in ruins. Progress is apparently made on the Temple, but the returning exiles do not have nearly the amount of resources that King Solomon had when he first built the Temple, and the Temple they reconstruct is shabby by comparison and disappointing to many. Furthermore, there is no mention in Haggai or in Ezra-Nehemiah of the glorious presence of God coming to dwell in this Second Temple as God had dwelt in the Most Holy Place of the First Temple.
But through Haggai, the LORD proclaims that “the glory of this present house will be greater than the glory of the former house” (Hag. 2:9). This prophecy is fulfilled as Jesus himself enters the gates of the Second Temple, bringing the glory and presence of God back to the Temple for the first time since God departed from it in 587/586 B.C. (see EZEKIEL, BOOK OF; PRESENCE OF GOD; TEMPLE).
The Median empire is dealt with in Daniel 2 and 7. Two views compete for the correct interpretation of Daniel’s biblical prophecy therein. (1) One view interprets the four kingdoms predicted by Daniel to be Babylonia (550 B.C.), Medo-Persia (539 B.C.), Greece (330 B.C.), and a revived Roman empire at the end of history. There is good evidence to support this view because in 550 B.C. Cyrus the Persian conquered the Medes and incorporated them into his empire. Daniel 8 is appealed to in support of this view, since the ram in Daniel’s vision has two horns (Medes and Persians).
(2) The other perspective treats the Medes as a separate entity in Daniel 2 and 7. Thus the four kingdoms are: Babylonia (550 B.C.), Media (550–539 B.C.), Persia (539 B.C.), and ancient Greece (330 B.C.). Two pieces of evidence support this view. (a) According to Daniel 7:5, the second kingdom defeated three nations, which seems to allude to Media’s triumph over Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz and their subsequent victory over Babylonia (cf. Jer. 51:27–29). (b) According to Daniel 2:39, the second empire was ultimately inferior to Babylonia, which fits Media more readily than Medo-Persia (see FOUR BEASTS OF DANIEL).
Second Resurrection
Revelation 20:1–6 describes the millennial saints as being included in the first resurrection; consequently, they will not be hurt by the second death, which will befall the beast and his evil followers (20:7–15). Those who interpret 20:1–6 as referring to a literal one-thousand-year reign of Christ on earth view the first resurrection as raising Christians to life to participate in the kingdom of God while the lost remain in their graves (see MILLENNIUM). At the end of the millennium, the text implies that the lost will be raised to face judgment at the Great White Throne of God, along with Satan and the beast.
Those who do not interpret the millennium as a future event but rather as the present reign of Christ in his kingdom believe that the first resurrection refers to the current spiritual conversion of Christians while the second death refers to the lost who will appear (or be raised) at the second coming of Christ to be judged by God.


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